Designing healthy communities: creating evidence on metrics for built environment features associated with walkable neighbourhood activity centres

Active transport – including walking for transport– [1–4] is both health-promoting and supports sustainable living [5, 6]. A growing body of international evidence [7–10], shows the built environment plays an important role in creating pedestrian-friendly neighbourhoods that promote walking and reduce chronic disease risk factors.

A number of built environment features are consist- ently shown to facilitate transport walking around resi- dential homes, which are the origins of many walking trips. These include: highly connected streets, high population density, mixed land use and good access to destinations and transit, and sidewalk provision [11–15]. However, to inform planning policy and urban design guidelines, policy-makers and urban designers require specific information on the types, quantities and mix of built environment features that influence walking [3, 16–21]. Moreover, most of the research to date has fo- cused on the home environment [22], with less research focused on the end points of those trips.


Where Latin Americans are physically active, and why does it matter? Findings from the IPEN-adult study in Bogota, Colombia; Cuernavaca, Mexico; and Curitiba, Brazil

Latin America (LA) has a unique structural, political, cultural and social environment. This study aimed to identify the places where Latin American adults are physically active; and to determine the association of using public- and restricted-access places with physical activity (PA). We used data from the International PA Environment Network study in Bogota, Colombia (n = 1000, accelerometry = 249); Cuernavaca, Mexico (n = 677, accelerometry = 652); and Curitiba, Brazil (n = 697, accelerometry = 331) (2010−2011). Walking and mod- erate-to-vigorous PA for leisure were measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Overall PA and PA within 10-minute bouts were measured with accelerometers. Participants reported use of public- and re- stricted-access places for PA. Mixed-effects regression models were used to determine the association of using public- and restricted-access places with PA. The streets were the most frequently-reported place for PA, and walking was the most common PA in the studied places. ‘Informal’, non-exercise-or-sports places (e.g., shopping malls) ranked high for use for PA in Bogota and Cuernavaca. In Curitiba, use of ‘formal’ places for sports/exercise (e.g., gyms) was more prevalent. Using public-access places was directly related to walking for leisure in all cities, and to additional PA outcomes in Bogota and Cuernavaca. In Cuernavaca and Curitiba, using restricted-access places was also associated with PA. Our study highlights the importance of public-access places for PA in LA. In some contexts, places for social interaction may be as important for PA as places for exercise/sport. Strategies in- creasing the availability, accessibility and quality of these places may effectively promote PA in LA.


Physical activity surveillance in the European Union: reliability and validity of the European Health Interview Survey-Physical Activity Questionnaire

The current study examined the reliability and validity of the European Health Interview Survey-Physical Activity Questionnaire (EHIS-PAQ), a novel questionnaire for the surveillance of physical activity (PA) during work, transportation, leisure time, sports, health-enhancing and muscle-strengthening activities over a typical week.


Triathlon Injuries: Transitioning from Prevalence to Prediction and Prevention

The Ironman triathlon began in Hawaii in 1978 with 50 participants. Since then, the race continues to grow in popularity. Now, each year, more than 50,000 athletes compete in Ironman distance races throughout the world. This race, typically consisting of a 2.4-mile (3.86 km) swim, 112-mile (180.25 km) bike, and a 26.2-mile (42.16 km) run, typically requires extensive training to complete. Athletes typically train for an average of 15 to 20 h·wk−1 (14,23,44). They spend around 6 months preparing for a single race and most continue to be active regularly throughout the year. With near year-round repetitive activity, these athletes are at high risk for overuse injuries. Training in three disciplines simultaneously, triathletes usually have a higher total training volume and intensity than single sport athletes. However, this diversity also allows the athlete to modify training while maintaining cardiovascular fitness when injuries occur (3). Here, we review what is currently known about the epidemiology and risk factors for injuries in Ironman distance triathletes as well as current research on injury prevention. It is hoped that this review guides recommendations for injury prevention as well as identifies gaps in our knowledge that will inspire future research.

Current Sports Medicine

Cardiometabolic Impact of Changing Sitting, Standing, and Stepping in the Workplace

According to cross-sectional and acute experimental evidence, reducing sitting time should improve cardio-metabolic health risk biomarkers. Furthermore, the improvements obtained may depend on whether sitting is replaced with standing or ambulatory activities. Based on data from the Stand Up Victoria multi-component workplace intervention, we examined this issue using compositional data analysis — a method that can examine and compare all activity changes simultaneously.


Los costos económicos y sociales de la obesidad en América Latina: Un llamado a la acción

Este informe está inspirado en la mesa redonda “Diálogo” del Instituto para la Calidad de Vida de Sodexo que se realizó cerca de Santiago de Chile el 24 de noviembre de 2016.

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